API Glossary

There are many acronyms and definitions in the world of the API so we have put together a short list containing the most used terms...

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
API -

Application Programming Interface (API) is a specification used as an interface by software components to allow them to communicate with each other.

API key and API secret -

The API key and secret will be sent to you in separate emails before you start developing. Note that the API key is mandatory and must be used on every API request while the secret is optional and may be required depending on the security profile of the API.

C
CAS -

Central Authentication Service (CAS) is a single sign-on protocol for the web. Its purpose is to permit customers to access multiple applications while providing their credentials (such as user ID and password) only once. It also allows web applications to authenticate customers without gaining access to their security credentials, such as a password.

E
Endpoint -

In API terms, the endpoint represents a web service as defined by the WADL - usually as a URL. In the context of a REST service endpoint, this would contain the GET, PUT, POST, HEAD and DELETE methods where appropriate.

J
JSON -

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is an open standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, as an alternative to XML.

P
Proxy Granting Ticket (PGT) -

A ticket sent by CAS to a service holding a valid service ticket (ST). Allows a third party to request a proxy ticket on behalf of a customer.

Proxy Granting Ticket IOU (PGTIOU) -

A ticket sent by CAS alone in a service validation response, and with a PGT to the callback URL. It is the web application's responsibility to maintain a table to correlate PGTIOUs and PGTs. This is part of the protocol between CAS and the third party to secure a PGT.

Proxy Ticket (PT) -

A ticket usable by a proxy to access a target by representing a customer. The PT carries information about the proxy or proxies attempting to gain access.

POST -

The HTTP method for creating resources with a RESTful API.

PUT -

The HTTP method for updating resources with a RESTful API.

Q
Quota (quota limit) -

Maximum number of requests per minute/hour/day/month to our servers.

R
Rate (throttle rate) -

Maximum burst rate measured over one second.

REST -

Representational State Transfer (REST) models the data as web documents, using identifying URLs and standard HTTP requests such as GET, PUT, HEAD, DELETE and POST to manipulate them.

Representation -

Data that describes the state of the resource. Usually the body of an HTTP request/response.

S
Service Ticket (ST) -

A ticket sent by CAS, through the User Agent to a service. Each ST may be used only once, and must be combined with the unique identifier for one specific/service in order to be useful. (Put another way, a service that knows its own unique identifier will refuse to accept STs intended for another service. This prevents one service from mounting a "man in the middle" attack against another.)

SOAP -

Simple Object Access Protocol is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks. It uses XML Information Set for its message format, and relies on other application layer protocols, most notably Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), for message negotiation and transmission.

Status Code -

HTTP status codes are what the server sends in the Response back to the client with regards to the status of the Request.

SLA -

Service Level Agreements are a form of contract between a service provider and consumer defining expected performance metrics.

T
Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT) -

TGT is the initial ticket that’s generated on customer login, by the User Agent, to generate service tickets.

W
WADL (Web Application Description Language) -

An XML description of HTTP-based web applications (usually REST). WADL handles the resources provided by the web service and the interactions between them. WADL is the REST equivalent of SOAP's WSDL (Web Services Description Language).

L
Latency -

The time it takes for the API Request to go from the Request to the Response.

X
XML -

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format which is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined by the W3C's XML 1.0 Specification and by several other related specifications, all of which are free open standards.

F
Fault string -

Human-friendly name of the error returned as a result of a fault after a request made through our APIs.

Fault code -

A unique William Hill identifier for the error. Each API has a specific convention for the fault code they return.

U
URI -

Uniform resource identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify a name of a resource. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web, using specific protocols.

H
Host -

Header containing the domain name of the Request URL.

D
DELETE -

The HTTP method for deleting resources with a RESTful API.

G
GET -

The HTTP method for retrieving resources from a RESTful API.

B
Basic HTTP Authentication -

In the context of an HTTP transaction, basic access authentication is a method for an HTTP user agent to provide a user name and password when making a request.

M
Media Type -

An identifier used to indicate the type of data that a file contains.

c
cURL -

Command Line Interface to HTTP. Extremely popular for testing APIs and the building block for many client libraries.